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        內蒙古軍人考試

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        2019內蒙古大學士兵考軍校備考資料:英語副詞解析

        2019-07-30 09:08:24| 來源: 內蒙中公教育

        【導語】軍轉干考試中,筆試、面試是考試的一種考試方式,內蒙古中公軍轉干考試網為考生們精心準備了大量軍轉干的閱讀資料、考試題庫以供大家參考學習,助力考生備考軍專干考試。

        副詞:用來說明事情發生的時間、地點、原因、方式等含義或說明其它形容詞或副詞程度的詞叫做副詞。

        1、副詞的分類:(見下表)

        副詞在句子中的位置以及作用:

        ⑴作狀語:

        ① 時間副詞:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before、later、yet等一般放在句尾,already、just一般放在動詞的前面。如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我們明天要去參觀長城) / They have already been to the UK twice.(他們去過英王國兩次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)

        ② 頻度副詞:一般放在be動詞之后或者助動詞與主要動詞之間,但sometimes、often等還可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有時起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch at the factory.(工人們通常在廠里吃午飯) / Take this medicine twice a day.(這種藥一天吃兩次)

        ③ 方式副詞:一般放在行為動之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或動詞之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人幾乎不可能走得和年輕人一樣快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看見了一絲亮光)

        ④ 地點副詞:一般放在句尾,但here、there還可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上萬的自行車朝各個方向流動) / The frightened wolf ran away.(受到驚嚇的狼逃開了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)

        ⑤ 程度副詞:修飾動詞時,放在動詞之前;修飾形容詞或副詞時,放在形容詞或副詞之前。但注意,enough總是放在被修飾的形容詞或動詞的后面;only位置比較靈活,總是放在被修飾的詞的前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告訴我,我幾乎把那事全忘了) / It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵) / She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地趕到車站趕上了首班車)

        ⑥ 疑問副詞:用于對句子的狀語進行提問,位置總是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何時何地出生?)/ Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小愛迪生為什么要坐在雞蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!)

        ⑦ 連接副詞:用來引導主語從句、賓語從句和表語從句,在從句中作狀語。How I am going to kill the cat is still a question.(我打算怎樣殺死那只貓還是個問題)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知道第二天怎樣做那事)

        ⑧ 關系副詞:用來引導定語從句,在從句中作狀語。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once lived.(這就是張先生曾經住過的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so well.(請告訴我你的英語是怎樣學得這么好的方法)

        ⑨ 其它副詞:too“也”,用在句尾;also放在動詞前;either “也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句首;so“如此,這樣”,放在形容詞、副詞前;on/off“開/關”放在動詞之后;not放在be之后、助動詞之后、不定式或動名詞之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或動詞之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宮博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也許你的票就在你的里邊衣袋里) / --Tom doesn’t have a computer. –Nor do I.(湯姆沒有計算機,我也沒有。)

        (2)作表語:地點副詞一般可以作表語,放在be等連系動詞之后,說明人物所處的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20 years.(我離開家鄉有將近20年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那邊)

        (3)作定語:時間副詞(如now、then)以及許多地點副詞都可以作名詞的定語,放在名詞的后面。如:People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(現在的人們經常在餐館里吃節日晚宴) / Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世紀20年代那兒的女人過著可怕的日子)

        (4)作賓語補足語:地點副詞一般可以作賓語補足語。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的臟襪子拿開!它們在散發著臭氣。) / Father kept him in and doing his lessons.(父親把他關在家里做作業)

        [注意] “動詞+副詞”的賓語如果是代詞,則該副詞應該放在代詞之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他寫下了那個詞。)→He wrote it down.(他把它寫了下來。)

        3、有關副詞的重要注釋:

        ⑴ as…as…常構成一些詞組:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同樣), as+形容詞/副詞+as possible(盡可能……地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(請你一到北京就給我寫信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(高小姐盡快地趕到了校門口。)

        [注釋] “as long / much as + 名詞”可以表示“長達/多達…”的含義。如:The house costs as much as five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花費高達50萬元。)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as two weeks.(他們呆在山洞里長達兩周。)

        ⑵ later、after、ago、before的用法:①“一段時間+later/ago”分別表示“(多久)以后/以前”,主要用于過去時態。②“after/before+某個時刻”分別表示“在某時刻之后/之前”,此時兩個詞是介詞。③ago與before:ago只能用于過去時,before用于完成時。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出了一個事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(數年后這個男孩成了著名的歌唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你從前到過那兒嗎?)/ After a few years he gave up smoking.(過了幾年他戒了煙。)

        ⑶ above、below、over、under的用法:在上下方用above和below,在高低處用over和under.如:The stars are high above in the sky.(星星高掛在空中) / A plane flew over quickly.(一架飛機從頭頂飛過。)

        當above、below、over、under是介詞性質時,意義相似。

        ⑷ too、also、either、nor的用法:too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑問句的末尾,且用逗號隔開;also(“也”)用于肯定句句子謂語動詞之前;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗號隔開;nor(“也不”)用于倒裝句句首;如:Are you American,too?(你也是美國人嗎?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy, either.(他不愉快,我也不。) / He didn’t watch the football game. Nor did I.(他沒有看足球賽,我也沒有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你還可以發覺那個市場很好。)

        ⑸ enough、too、so、very、quite、very much的用法: enough (“足夠,十分”)放在形容詞或副詞之后;too(“太”)、very(“非常”)、quite(“相當”)、so(“如此地”)等放在形容詞或副詞之前,very much(“非常”)放在動詞之后。如:It’s too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太貴/那么貴/非常貴/相當貴。)/ I don’t like sweets very much.(我不很喜歡糖果)

        [注意] very與 much的區別:very修飾形容詞、副詞的原級和現在分詞形容詞,much修飾形容詞和副詞的比較級;much還可以修飾疑問句和否定句中的動詞,very不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone swept.(電影非常動人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得學習更努力,不然你考不進那所好學校)/ I don’t like him much.(我不太喜歡他)

        ⑹ sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time的用法:sometimes(有時)用于一般現在時、 sometime(在將來某時)用于將來時、 some times(數次)表示次數、some time(一些時間)表示一段時間。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他們有時徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some time.(我會在這兒呆些時候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么時候要見見你的父親。)

        ⑺ how、what用于感嘆句的用法:對句子中的形容詞或副詞感嘆時用how,對人或事物(可能含有形容詞作修飾語)進行感嘆用what. 如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天氣真好!) / How difficult (the problem is)!((問題)真難呀!)

        ⑻ already、yet的用法:在完成時中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑問句。如:Have you done it already?(你已經做好了?) / I have not had my breakfast yet.(我還沒有吃早飯呢。)

        ⑼ hard與hardly的用法:hard作為副詞意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly是否定詞,意思是:“幾乎不”,一般與情態動詞can/could連用。如:They study English very hard.(他們英語學得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共場所你幾乎看不到一個人隨地吐痰)

        ⑽ like...very much、like...better(=prefer)、like...best的用法:三個短語分別表示“非常喜歡”、“更喜歡”、“最喜歡”。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜歡棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?( / They like hamburgers best.

        ⑾“quite/what+a+形容詞+名詞”的用法:記住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容詞+名詞;②too/so/how+形容詞+a+名詞;③rather+a+形容詞+名詞 = a+ rather+形容詞+名詞。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我從未見過這樣奇怪的家伙) / It is quite a nice day for a walk.(這真是散步的好日子)

        ⑿ how 的幾個短語:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般時態,對表示頻度的詞語進行提問; how soon“多久以后”,用于將來時態; how long“多久”,用于過去時、完成時或其他時態; how many times“多少次”,用于過去時或完成時,對總計次數進行提問; how much“多么,多少”,對程度進行提問,也可以對數量(不可數)或金錢進行提問。如:How long have you been like this?(你這樣已經多久了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次臉?)

        ⒀ much、more與most的用法:這三個詞除了是形容詞作名詞的修飾語之外,還是程度副詞,much表示“很”,修飾原級形/副,more表示“更”用來構成多音節形/副的比較級,most表示“最”用來構成多音節形/副的最高級。此外,much也可以修飾比較級形/副。如:This park is much more beautiful than that one.(這個公園比那個漂亮多了)/ It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(這是我看過的最有教育意義的電影)

        ⒁ no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer的用法:表示時間,可以用no longer、not...ny more、no...any longer,而且no longer只能放在謂語動詞之前;表示程度,可以用no more、not...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里) / Tom wanted no more cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕) / He didn’ t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽煙)

        ⒂ 被動語態中,方式副詞一般放在be與謂語動詞之間。如: The runner was badly hurt.(賽跑運動員受了重傷) / English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英語說得很廣泛)

        ⒃ too...to...與so...that...的問題:副詞too/so后面跟形容詞或副詞,to后面跟動詞,that后面跟從句。Too...to... (“太.……以致不……”)是否定的結構,用于簡單句;so...that...(“如此…以致…”)是肯定結構,用于復合句。如:The child is too young to join the army.(這孩子年齡太小還不能參軍)/ He is so strong that he can lift the heavy box.(他這么強壯,搬得動那個重箱子。)

        ⒄ 既是形容詞也是副詞的單詞有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等等。如:It was a long holiday.(那是個長假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那兒呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will find a way.(好好想你就會找到辦法)/ He is a very hard(難對付的) person.(他是個難玩的家伙)

        ⒅ farther與further的用法區別:表示地點、方向或距離時兩個詞同義,意思為“更遠、較遠”,但是further還表示“更多、進一步、額外”等意思,此時不能換為farther. 如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他們決定第二天走得再遠些)/ This problem will be further discussed.(這個問題還要進一步討論)/ Every one of them had their further studies after they left college.(他們每個人大學畢業后繼續進修)

        ⒆ rather與quite的用法區別:同very一樣,兩個詞都表示形容詞或副詞的程度,quite表示“不到最高程度但是比預料的好”,rather比quite更接近very的含義,含有令人驚訝的意思。見下圖對“nice”程度的描繪:

        not nice (fairly) nice quite nice rather nice very nice

        如:It’s quite a nice film.(這是部好片子)。(可能意味著不是一部最好的電影) / It’s rather a nice film.(這是部很不錯的電影。)(意味著比大多數電影都好)

        [注意]注意quite與rather后面的次序詞序。

        ⒇ maybe、possibly、perhaps的區別:maybe“可能、也許”,比另外兩個詞更不正式、更隨便、可能性不大;possibly“可能地、或者、也許”,可能性較大,在否定句和疑問句中表示“無論如何”;perhaps“可能”,較為常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You could put it over there,maybe.(也許你可以把它放在那邊) / I couldn’t possibly have finished such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能在這么短的時間內完成這么長的一本書)/ I thought perhaps it was the letter you have been expecting.(我以為那也許就是你期盼的信件)

        (21) most、mostly的區別:most作為形容詞和名詞時意思是“大多數的、大部分的”,作為副詞時意思為“最,十分、很”;mostly僅為副詞,意思為“主要地、多半地、大部分地”。如:I was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空時大部分時間都在家)Most children are naughty.(大部分的孩子都淘氣)/ This is the most exciting part of the film.(這是電影中最令人興奮的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家)

        (22) (be) worth、(be) worthy of的區別:worth一般被看作是介詞,后面接名詞或者動名詞,用主動表示被動含義,還可以用副詞well修飾;worthy of表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟動名詞的被動形式。如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做). / The house is worth ¥300,000.(房子價值30萬元)/ This book is well worth reading several times.(這本書值得好好讀幾遍)/ It is a thing worthy of being seen.(這是一個值得看的東西)

        (23)almost、nearly的區別:兩個詞意思相近,都表示“幾乎、將近”,大多數情況下可以互換,與否定詞連用時用almost不用nearly. almost no 相當于hardly any(幾乎沒有)。如:He had done almost nothing today.(他今天幾乎沒有干什么) / We are almost/nearly there.(我們幾乎就到那里了)/ Almost nobody/Hardly anybody understood his words.(幾乎沒有人懂他的話)

        (24) a bit與a little的區別:這兩個名詞短語經常當作副詞使用,修飾形容詞或副詞的原級或比較級,可以互換,語氣比rather弱。如:This digital camera is a bit(a little) expensive.(這臺數碼相機有點貴)/ It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday.(今天比昨天冷了點)

        另外,a little可以直接加不可數名詞,a bit 則采用“a bit + of +名詞(不可數或可數名詞復數)”的形式。如:I have got a bit of a cold.(我有點感冒)/ Go and get a little water for me, please.(請你去給我搞點水來)

        [注意] not a bit(=not at all)意為“根本不”,而 not a little則意為“非常,不是一點”。

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